By the end of 18th century, China remained isolated from the rest of the world’s civilization. Foreigners were restricted in the mainland China. Only Hong Kong and Macau were opened to European merchants. Following the war in 1839–1842(the first opium war) and the signing of treaties between China and Great Britain, several ports were opened up for trading especially opium, and Hong Kong was ceded to Britain. This weakened Chinese sovereignty and gave foreigners immunity from Chinese jurisdiction.
The accession of the in infant emperor Hsuan T’ung after the death of Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi in 1908 was the start of the nationwide rebellion led by Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. In 1911 he became the first President of the Provisional Chinese Republic by overthrowing the Manchus. Dr. Sun resigned in favor of Yuan Shi-kai who suppressed the Republicans. Yuan’s death in 1916 was followed by years of civil war between Dr. Sun’s Republicans and rival militarist. In 1928 General Chiang-Kai-Shek established Kuomintang regime with the advice of Communist experts. He occupied most of China. Conflict continued which led to Chiang’s breaking away from the Communists.
In 1931, Japan started an invasion of Manchuria, capturing the province. In 1937 they tried to seize northern part of China but were resisted by Chiang. He used Japanese invasion to unite most of China behind him however, Japan had seized most of the nation’s eastern ports and railways. In 1945, Japan surrendered to the Western Allies, and it was also the start of the civil war between Chiang and Mao-Zedong forces. They have been battling since 1930 for control of China. But despite of U.S help, Kuomintang under Chiang’s leadership was defeated by Mao-Zedong who was aided by the Soviet Union. Chiang and his followers escaped to Taiwan and established a government-in-exile. The Mao regime under his communist leadership proclaimed the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949 with Beijing as the new capital and Zhou Enlai as premier.
Yesterday Communist China celebrated its 60th anniversary, part of the celebration was the fireworks display. I was overwhelmed by the number of people who watched the fireworks last night.
The fireworks was along the river, since it was near our place we decided to watch it too. Everybody enjoyed the fireworks especially the Kids, i too enjoyed it, it was too noisy, though. Most of them brought a small flag, as what i observed i think most of the Chinese people are proud of the progress and development of their Country.
©2009 the emissary’s feet